Requiemhaaien

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Requiemhaaien
Carcharinus melanopterus
Carcharinus melanopterus
Taxonomische indeling
Rijk: Animalia (Dieren)
Stam: Chordata (Chordadieren)
Klasse: Chondrichthyes (Kraakbeenvissen)
Onderklasse: Elasmobranchii (Haaien en roggen)
Superorde: Selachimorpha (Haaien)
Orde: Carcharhiniformes (Grondhaaien)
Familie
Carcharhinidae
Jordan & Evermann, 1896
Geslachten
Afbeeldingen Requiemhaaien op Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons
Requiemhaaien op Wikispecies Wikispecies
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Requiemhaaien (Carcharhinidae), ook wel menshaaien of roofhaaien genoemd, is een familie van grondhaaien (Carcharhiniformes) die bestaat uit 12 geslachten[1] en 52 soorten[1]. De term requiemhaai is vermoedelijk afgeleid van het Franse requin (haai). Zij komen voor in tropische en gematigde zeeën.

Herkenning en gedrag[bewerken]

Alle leden van deze familie hebben dezelfde cacharhiniforme kenmerken: ronde ogen en de borstvinnen geheel achter de vijf kieuwspleten gelegen. De meeste soorten zijn levendbarend en kunnen een lengte van enkele meters bereiken.
Haaien uit deze groep, die vaak moeilijk als soort herkend worden, kunnen gevaarlijk zijn voor mensen. Als groep staan ze nummer vier op de lijst van het ISAF, met 39 niet uitgelokte aanvallen op mensen (tussen 1580 en 2008!), waarvan er zeven dodelijk.[2]

Taxonomie[bewerken]

De familie van requiemhaaien is als volgt onderverdeeld:[1]

Bronnen, noten en/of referenties
  1. a b c Carcharhinidae. FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. Februari 2009 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2009.
  2. ISAF Statistics on Attacking Species of Shark
  3. a b c Poey, F. 1858-61, Memorias sobra la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba, acompañadas de sumarios Latinos y extractos en Francés. Tomo 2. La Habana. [Sections have subtitles.]. Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba, ... v. 2: 1-96 (1858), 97-336 (1860), 337-442, (1861), Pls. 1-19. [For publication dates of parts see p. 427 and remarks under ref. 3497 above.]
  4. a b c d Rüppell, W.P.E.S. 1835-38, Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres. Frankfurt-am-Main. 1-148, Pls. 1-33. [1835:1-28, Pls. 1-7; 1836:29-52, Pls. 8-14; 1837:53-80, Pls. 15-21; 1838:81-148, Pls. 22-33.]. Fische des Rothen Meeres. Frankfurt-am-Main. [For dates see Sawyer 1952 [ref. 13582].]
  5. Springer, S. 1950 (9 Feb.), A revision of North American sharks allied to the genus Carcharhinus. American Museum Novitates No. 1451: 1-13.
  6. Whitley, G.P. 1934 (30 June), Notes on some Australian sharks. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 10 (pt 4): 180-200, Pls. 27-29.
  7. Bleeker, P. 1856, Carcharias (Prionodon) amblyrhynchos, eene nieuwe haaisoort, gevangen nabij het eiland Solombo. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10: 467-468.
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Müller, J. en F.G.J. Henle 1838-41, Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen.: i-xxii + 1-200, 60 pls. [Pp. 1-28 published in 1838, reset pp. 27-28, 29-102 in 1839, i-xxii + 103-200 in 1841.]
  9. Bleeker, P. 1858, Twaalfde bijdrage tot de kennis der vischfauna van Borneo. Visschen van Sinkawang. Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7): 1-10. [Written Oct. 1857 and Mar. 1858. Published in vol. for 1858-59, year uncertain.]
  10. Günther, A. 1870 (25 June), Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, ...[thru] ... Leptocardii, in the British Museum. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. v. 8: i-xxv + 1-549.
  11. Whitley, G.P. 1945 (11 June), New sharks and fishes from Western Australia. Part 2. Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1): 1-42, Pl. 1.
  12. Whitley, G.P. 1943 (15 Sept.), Ichthyological descriptions and notes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4): 114-144.
  13. Snodgrass, R.E. en E. Heller 1905 (31 Jan.), Papers from the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shore fishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Science. v. 6: 333-427.
  14. Garrick, J.A.F. 1985 Additions to a revision of the shark genus Carcharhinus: synonymy of Aprionodon and Hypoprion, and description of a new species of Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 34. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. 26 p.
  15. Liu, J.-X. 1983 (Jan.), Description of a new species of the shark genus Carcharhinus from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 8 (no. 1): 101-103. [In Chinese, English summary.]
  16. Quoy, J.R.C. en J.P. Gaimard 1824-25, Description des Poissons. Chapter IX. In: Freycinet, L. de, Voyage autour du Monde...exécuté sur les corvettes de L. M. "L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Paris. Description des Poissons. Chapter IX. In: Freycinet, L. de, Voyage autour du Monde...: 192-401 [1-328 in 1824; 329-616 in 1825], Atlas pls. 43-65. [See Whitley 1943:136-137 [ref. 4702] for route and localities; for dates see Sherborn & Woodward 1901:392 [ref. 13447].]
  17. Lesueur, C.A. 1818 (May/Sept.), Description of several new species of North American fishes. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2): 222-235; 359-368, Pls. 10, 11, 14. [Pp. 222-235 published in May, pp. 359-368 in Sept.]
  18. Poey, F. 1876 (31 Dec.), Enumeratio piscium cubensium (Parte III). Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5: 373-404, Pls. 7-10.
  19. Nardo, G.D. 1827, Prodromus observationum et disquisitionum Adriaticae ichthyologiae. Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturele, medicina, ed arti. Dec. II, v. 10: 22-40. [Nardo 1827 [ref. 19740] is essentailly the same but with many slight changes; earliest not established.]
  20. Ranzani, C. 1839, De novis speciebus piscium. Dissertatio prima. Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]: 65-83, Pls. 8-13. [A separate was apparently published in 1839, pp. 1-19, Pls. 1-6 [so we have dated the species to 1839].]
  21. Pietschmann, V. 1913, Fische des Wiesbadener Museums. [Includes 5 subtitles.]. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde. Wiesbaden v. 66: 170-201, Pls. 1-2.
  22. a b Poey, F. 1868, Synopsis piscium cubensium. Catalogo Razonado de los peces de la isla de Cuba. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2: 279-484. [For dates of sections see Norman 1938 [ref. 7314].]
  23. Whitley, G.P. 1950 (7 July), A new shark from north-western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist v. 2 (no. 5): 100-105.
  24. a b c Müller, J. en F.G.J. Henle 1837, Gattungen der Haifische und Rochen nach einer von ihm mit Hrn. Henle unternommenen gemeinschaftlichen Arbeit über die Naturgeschichte der Knorpelfische. Bericht Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1837: 111-118. [Presented 31 July 1837, assume published late 1837. A synopsis appeared in L'Institut 1837 [?1838]: 63-65.]
  25. Lesueur, C. A. 1822 (Nov.), Description of a Squalus, of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New-Jersey. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2: 343-352, Pl.
  26. Agassiz, L. 1833-43, Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Neuchâtel, Switzerland. 5 vols. with atlas. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles.
  27. Compagno, L.J.V., W.T. White en P. R. Last 2008, Glyphis garricki sp. nov., a new species of river shark (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Glyphis glyphis (Müller & Henle, 1839). In: Descriptions of new Australian Chondrichthyans. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022: 203-226.
  28. Steindachner, F. 1896, Bericht über die während der Reise Sr. Maj. Schiff "Aurora" von Dr. C. Ritter v. Microszewski in den Jahren 1895 und 1896, gesammelten Fische. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11: 197-230, Pl. 4.
  29. a b Gill, T.N. 1862, Analytical synopsis of the order of Squali; and revision of the nomenclature of the genera. [Genera date to this article, also treated in Gill 1862:409-413 [ref. 4910]. Both articles combined as separate, pp. 1-42.]. Annals of the Lycium of Natural History of New York v. 7: 367*-370*, 371-408. [Pp. 367-370 duplicated in preceding article. Read 16 Dec. 1861, probably published early 1862.]
  30. Müller, J. en F.G.J. Henle 1838 (Jan. & Feb.), On the generic characters of cartilaginous fishes, with descriptions of new genera. Magazine of Natural History [Charlesworth, ed.] (n.s.) v. 2: 33-37; 88-91. [See also: Arch. Anat. (Müller), 1842: 414-417. Pp. 33-37 published in Jan.; 88-91 in Feb.]
  31. Compagno, L.J.V. en J.A.F. Garrick 1983 (Aug.), Nasolamia, new genus, for the shark Carcharhinus velox Gilbert, 1898 (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae). Zoological Publications from Victoria University of Wellington No. 76: 1-16.
  32. Jordan, D.S. en B.W. Evermann 1898 (26 Nov.), The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part III. Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47: i-xxiv + 2183a-3136.
  33. Whitley, G.P. 1940 (20 July), The fishes of Australia. Part I. The sharks, rays, devil-fish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand. Royal Society of New South Wales, Zoological Handbook: 1-280.
  34. Cantor, T.E. 1849 (Oct.-Dec.), Catalogue of Malayan fishes. Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2): i-xii + 983-1443, Pls. 1-14. [Also as a separate, J. Thomas, Calcutta, i-xii + 1-461. Often cited with date as 1850 --the date on title page of part 2. Page headers: pp. 981-1086 (Oct.), 1087-1256 (Nov.), 1257-1443 (Dec.). Plates may date differently from text.]
  35. Linnaeus, C. 1758 (1 Jan.), Systema naturae, Ed. X. Tomus I: 230-338.
  36. Whitley, G.P. 1929 (24 Mar.), Additions to the check-list of the fishes of New South Wales. No. 2. Australian Zoologist v. 5 (pt 4): 353-357.
  37. Jordan, D. S. and C. H. Gilbert 1882 (3 July), Description of four new species of sharks, from Mazatlan, Mexico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 268): 102-110.
  38. Springer, V.G. 1964 (1 Sept.), A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera Scoliodon, Loxodon, and Rhizoprionodon. Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 115 (no. 3493): 559-632, Pls. 1-2.
  39. Ogilby, J.D. 1915 (Jan. 28), On some new or little-known Australian fishes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 3: 117-129, Pls. 29-30.
  40. Richardson, J. 1836, The Fish. In: Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: ... Part 3: i-xv + 1-327, Pls. 74-97.